The massacre at koniuchy



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; Rimantas Zizas, “Bakaloriškių sunaikinimas,” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 2 (12), 2002, posted online at .

91 Arad, The Partisan, 158.

92 For confirmation that Jewish partisans took part in the assault see “Operations Diary of a Jewish Partisan Unit in Rudniki Forest, 1943–1944,” in Arad, Gutman, and Margaliot, eds., Documents of the Holocaust, 469. The attack occurred on April 27, 1944; two families of Home Army members—consisting of eight people—were murdered and their farmsteads burned to the ground. See Krajewski, Na Ziemi Nowogródzkiej, 511. In retaliation Polish forces attacked the hamlet of Wisińcza located in Rudniki forest, a mainstay of the Soviet partisans. See Krajewski, Na Ziemi Nowogródzkiej, 512; Boradyn, Niemen–rzeka niezgody, 223; Kiersnowski, Tam i wtedy, 96. The local population referred to the Soviet partisan units as “Wisińcza” because their base was located between the village by that name and Lake Kiernowo. In order to lessen hostilities, the Polish underground entered into negotiations with the Soviet partisans in April 1944. Areas of operation were divided up, the Poles agreed to provide food in exchange for arms in order to curtail food gathering expeditions, and Soviet partisans were allowed to pass through areas controlled by the Home Army. See Boradyn, Niemen–rzeka niezgody, 223–24; Stanisława Lewandowska, Wilno 1944–1945: Oczekiwania i nastroje (Warsaw: Neriton and Instytut Historii PAN, 2007), 47–48.

93 Rimantas Zizas, Persecution of Non-Jewish Citizens of Lithuania, Murder of Civilian Population (1941–1944), International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania (Vilnius 2003), 60–61, also published in Dieckmann, et al., Karo belaisvių ir civilių gyventojų žudynės Lietuvoje 1941-1944–Murders of Prisoners of War and of Civilian Population in Lithuania, 1941-1944; Tomkiewicz, Zbrodnia w Ponarach 1941–1944, 149, 349–52. See also Kowalski, A Secret Press in Nazi Europe, 349, 351; Wiktor Noskowski, “Czy Yaffa Eliach przeprosi Polaków?” Myśl Polska, July 20–27, 1997; Zizas, “Žudynių Kaniūkuose pėdsakais,” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 1 (11), 2002. According to Jewish sources, two Jewish units (“Avenger” and “To Victory”) took part in the ambush on the German vehicles that precipitated the destruction of Pirciupie. See “Operations Diary of a Jewish Partisan Unit in Rudniki Forest, 1943–1944,” in Arad, Gutman, and Margaliot, eds., Documents of the Holocaust, 469. In There Once Was a World, at 641, Eliach cannot make up her mind about the villagers of Pirciupie, conceding that many of them did assist the Soviet-Jewish partisans.

94 Kahn, No Time To Mourn, 134.

95 Marc Perelman, “Poles Open Probe Into Jewish Role In Killings,” Forward (New York), August 8, 2003.

96 Levin, Fighting Back, 182.

97 Ibid., 197.

98 Ibid., 277 n.4. According to his memoir Levin joined the “Death to the Occupiers” unit in March 1944 after escaping from the ghetto in Kaunas. He did not therefore take part in the assault on Koniuchy but did participate in “requisition missions” that targeted area farmers. While he does not mention any incidents of brutality on the part of Polish partisans, he complains of the “anti-Semitic virus” that infected his “non-Jewish comrades” and relates an incident which almost cost him his life (he was abandoned in a snowstorm). See Dov Levin, With a Rifle in My Hand and Eretz Yisrael in My Heart, Internet: (updated July 28, 2005), 17–18.

99 Levin, Fighting Back, 191. By comparison, the Germans and allied Lithuanian forces killed 92 Jewish partisans, while the Soviet and Jewish partisans killed 16.

100 Arad, Ghetto in Flames, 459–60. Nechama Tec refers to these assaults as “anti-German military missions.” See Tec, “Reflections on Resistance and Gender,” in Roth and Maxwell, eds., Remembering for the Future, vol. 1, 559; Tec, Resilience and Courage, 281.

101 Šarūnas Liekis, “Koniuchy in the ‘New’ and ‘Old’ Polish and Jewish Memory,” Conference Paper, “Between Coexistence and Divorce: 25 Years of Research on the History and Culture of Polish Jewry and Polish-Jewish Relations,” Hebrew University of Jerusalem, March 17–19, 2009.

102 Arad, Ghetto in Flames, 249.

103 Sara Ginaite, “‘Investigating’ Jewish Partisans in Lithuania: The Protest of a Veteran Jewish Partisan,” Jewish Currents, September 2008: “During the events in Koniuchy, I was not in the Rudnicky [Rudniki] forest. I was on assignment to return to the Kaunas (Kovno) Ghetto … I cannot comment, therefore, on the details of the event. I can say this however: In our own interest, we tried to keep friendly relations with the villagers in the Rudnicky forest. We were never encouraged to harass or hurt them. In order to survive, we did have to collect food wherever we could, often from hostile villagers, but we tried as far as possible to seize food from German food storage areas or transports of food headed for Germany.”

104 Adam Fuerstenberg, “Lithuania Asks Partisans to ‘Justify’ Their Actions,” The Canadian Jewish News, November 20, 2008.

105 Among those who engaged in gratuitously condemning the Lithuanian authorities for mounting an investigation was The Economist (“Prosecution and Persecution: Lithuania Must Stop Blaming the Victims,” August 21, 2008).

106 Geoff Vasil, “Analyzing Lithuanian Anti-Semitism: The ‘Double Genocide’ Theory Refuses to Quit,” Jewish Currents, November 2008.

107 Abe Lawre, “Falsifying History,” February 20, 2009, Internet:

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