. The passage in question is found in Part One of the chapter “In the Open Battle.” Isaac Kowalski’s lists of partisans does not include the Jewish partisans fighting in the “Death to the Invaders [Occupiers/Conquerors]” unit mentioned in this source.
69 Rimantas Zizas, “Pacyfikacja wsi Koniuchy (Kaniūkai),” Biuletyn Historii Pogranicza (Białystok), no. 4 (2003): 49; Piotr Gontarczyk, “Tragedia Koniuchów,” Niezależna Gazeta Polska, March 3, 2006, 27. This information comes from the fighters’ personal files found in the Vilnius archives housing the Soviet partisan movement documents. Zizas (supra) also lists fighters from other units: L. Žubikas from “For the Fatherland” detachment, S. Kuozis from the Margiris detachment, and A. Uždavinis from the Mickiewicz detachment.
70 Ruzhka Korchak, Plamia pod peplom (Tel Aviv: Biblioteka-Aliia, 1977), 261. The author’s name is rendered in various forms: Ruzhka Korchak (Russian), Reizl Korchak (Yiddish), Rużka Korczak (Polish), and Reuzl Korts’ak (Hebrew). Her memoirs appeared in Hebrew as: Reuzl Korts’ak, Lehavot ba-efer [tirgem mi-khetav yad ha-Polani, Binyamin Tenenboim], Edition/Mahad 2 (Merhavyah: ha-Kibuts ha-artsi ha-Shomer ha-tsa’ir, ); Lehavot ba-’efer [targum mi-khetav ha-yad ha-Polani Binyamin Tene], Edition/Mahadurah 3 murhevet ([Tel Aviv]: Moreshet, bet ’edut ’al shem Mordekhai Anilevits, ). The only reference in her memoir to a specific altercation with the Home Army was a chase that ensued after the Jewish partisans staged a raid on a village. See Korchak, Plamia pod peplom, 312.
71 General Povilas Plechavičius was the commander of the collaborationist Lithuanian “defence force” in the service of the Germans.
72 As noted earlier, there is no evidence to support this claim in Soviet reports. See Zizas, “Žudynių Kaniūkuose pėdsakais,” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 1 (11), 2002.
73 Korchak, Plamia pod peplom, 319–21. Korchak states that the Jewish partisan command in the Rudniki forest did not permit collective punishment and that Jewish partisans targeted only actual collaborators with great effort, risk and precision in order to prevent innocent civilian casualties. The accounts gathered in this book belie that claim. Korchak also claims that the punitive operation, and the manner in which it was carried out, caused “great consternation” and that many of the fighters in the Jewish camp voiced “sharp criticism.” However, there is no indication of this in the boastful accounts penned by actual participants such as Chaim Lazar, Isaac Kowalski, Israel Weiss, and others.
74 Paul Bagriansky, “Koniuchi,” Pirsumim (Tel Aviv: Publications of the Museum of the Combatants and Partisans), no. 65–66 (December 1988): 120–24.
75 Jerzy Danilewicz, “Zbrodnia bez kary,” Newsweek (Warsaw), May 15, 2005.
76 Interview with Baruch Shub, November 5, 1993, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archive. Shub describes the arrest of Poles in Wilno after the Soviet “liberation,” and how the Jewish partisans were assigned to “reorganize” the Lithuanian prison system. His unit was sent to the infamous łukiszki prison where he worked for a time.
77 Interview with Harry Reischer, Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Interview Code 21907.
78 Krakowski, Le Ghetto dans la forêt, 58, 78, 82, 86.
79 Kowalski, A Secret Press in Nazi Europe, 270.
80 LVOA F. 1, In. 1, File 410, p. 173.
81 Eidintas, Jews, Lithuanians and the Holocaust, 306.
82 Piotr Gontarczyk, “Tragedia Koniuchów,” Niezależna Gazeta Polska, March 3, 2006, 28. After their sham trials, Władysław Woronis, Stanisław Bobin, and Jan Kodis were convicted and received sentences of 10 years in a concentration camps and confiscation of their property.
83 LCSA F.R–666, In. 1, File 7, p. 29. See also Arūnas Bubnys, “253-iasis lietuvių policijos batalionas (1943–1944),” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 2 (4), 1998, posted online at ; Zizas, “Žudynių Kaniūkuose pėdsakais,” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 1 (11), 2002.
84 Alexandria Collection, T–454, Reichministerium für die besetzten Ostgebiete, Reel 19, reproduced in part in Jan Bańbor, “Tło wydarzeń w Koniuchach w polskich i niemieckich sprawozdaniach sytuacyjnych,” Biuletyn Historii Pogranicza (Biaystok), no. 4 (2003): 98.
85 Krajewski, Na Ziemi Nowogródzkiej, 511–12. This version is not only confirmed by Polish eyewitnesses, but also is consistent with German and Lithuanian reports.
86 For example, Władysław Woronis, who organized the night watch in Koniuchy, was sentenced to 10 years in a penal camp. See Malewski, “Masakra w Koniuchach,” Nasza Gazeta, March 8, 2001; Narkowicz, “‘Siła w cierpieniu (z zeznań naocznego świadka),” Nasza Gazeta, March 29, 2001; Andrzej Kumor, interview with Edward Tubin, “Nie przepuścili nikomu…: Z naocznym świadkiem pacyfikacji wsi Koniuchy rozmawia Andrzej Kumor,” Gazeta (Toronto), May 4–6, 2001; Jerzy Danilewicz, “Zbrodnia bez kary,” Newsweek (Warsaw), May 15, 2005; Piotr Gontarczyk, “Tragedia Koniuchów,” Niezależna Gazeta Polska, March 3, 2006. The archives of the Lithuanian KGB in Vilnius contain an enormous file with interrogation reports and statements by former partisans.
87 “Istoriia otriada ‘Za Pobedu’,” Lietuvos ypatingasis archyva, Arkhiv Tsentralnogo Komiteta Kommunisticheskoi Partii Litvy, Litovskii Shtab Partizanskogo Dvizheniia, Partizanskii otriad “Za Pobedu”, Vilnius, fond 11, opis 1, delo 1, listy 14–16.
88 Levin, Fighting Back, 199.
89 Krajewski, “Nowogródzki Okręg Armii Krajowej,” in Wołkonowski, ed., Sympozjum historyczne “Rok 1944 na Wileńszczyźnie,” 54; Krajewski, Na Ziemi Nowogródzkiej, 388; Gasztold, “Sowietyzacja i rusyfikacja Wileńszczyzny i Nowogródczyzny w działalności partyzantki sowieckiej w latach 1941–1944,” in Sudoł, ed., Sowietyzacja Kresów Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej po 17 września 1939, 277; Boradyn, Niemen–rzeka niezgody, 203–204. According to Polish sources, ten people were murdered in Babińsk (February 24, 1944); 12–14 villagers were killed in Prowżały in retaliation for an attempt to organize a local self-defence group (February 17, 1944); and seven families were massacred in Szczepki (June 9, 1944). According to Soviet sources, 71 people perished in Kamień on May 14, 1944.
90 Rimantas Zizas, “Vietinė savisauga (savigyna) Lietuvoje nacių Vokietijos okupacijos metais (1941–1944),” Genocidas ir rezistencija, no. 1 (11), 2002, posted online at