krótkiego zasięgu Teresa Abramowicz-Gerigk Gdynia Maritime University
Akademia Morska w Gdyni
81-225 Gdynia, ul Morska 81/87
e-mail: email@example.com Abstract: The paper presents the existed solutions and proposition of the new elements of IT (Information Technology) applications in ports. The new decision support systems for the ship master, harbourmaster and port chief dispatcher related to ship entry into the harbour and berthing inside the docs are introduced. The systems based on the online hydro-meteorological and traffic information are proposed for the safe and efficient ferry operations.
Keywords: ship, port entry, berthing, safety
Streszczenie: W artykule przedstawiono stosowane w portach rozwiązania z zakresu technologii informacyjnej IT (Information Technology) oraz propozycje nowych systemów wspomagania decyzji kapitana statku, kapitana portu oraz głównego dyspozytora portu w odniesieniu do operacji wejścia statku do portu i cumowania. Wprowadzenie tych systemów, opartych o bieżącą informację o ruchu statków i hydrometeorologiczną, umożliwi poprawę efektywności i bezpieczeństwa eksploatacji promów.
Słowa kluczowe: statek, wejście do portu, cumowanie, bezpieczeństwo
Elements of port ITS increasing safety and efficiency of ship manoeuvring operations
in short sea shipping 1. Introduction Short Sea Shipping (SSS) is defined as the shipping of passengers and goods for relatively short distances. The European Community (EC) refers SSS to the intermodal concept involving the maritime transportation and references as “The Dynamic Choice Complementing the Sustainable Transport Chain”, using the designation Motorways of the Sea (MOS).
Motorways of the Sea were introduced by the EC in April 2003. On the 29th April 2004 Council and Parliament adopted a revision of the Trans-European Transport Network Guidelines (TEN-T), which gives a legal basis to the concept of Motorways of the Sea. “The White Paper on European transport policy for 2010 highlights the role that Short Sea Shipping can play in curbing the growth of heavy goods vehicle traffic, rebalancing the modal split and bypassing land bottlenecks. The development of Short Sea Shipping can also help to reduce the growth of road transport, restore the balance between modes of transport, bypass bottlenecks and contribute to sustainable development and safety” .
The performance indicators of Short Sea Shipping are as follows:
availability and frequency of services,
timing of departures and arrivals,
reliability and control.
It is expected that the coming development of MOS and European transport corridors will be followed by the evolution of existed IT (Information Technology) systems, development of logistic centers and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS).
There are many projects proposed within the European MOS initiative. One of the investments in Poland related to the project “Baltic-Link Motorway of the Sea Karlskrona-Gdynia” is a new ferry terminal in Port of Gdynia with two new ferry berths, capable to handle 4 ships up to 240 m in length daily. The investments of terminal buildings, storage yards, intermodal terminal, access roads and rail network are to be finished until 2010. Navigational Department of Gdynia Maritime University as a partner in the consortium proposed several activities to support the project. The idea of the new elements of port ITS increasing safety and efficiency of ferry operations is based on the results of research previously conducted at GMU.
2. Elements of port ITS The Intelligent Transportation System is defined as “the application of advanced information technologies to improve safety and efficiency of the surface transportation system” . It is an integrated system of sensor, computer, electronics, advanced communication technologies and management techniques applied to improve mobility and transportation productivity.
Implementation of ITS in ports enhances safety, conserves energy resources and reduces unwanted environmental effects. It allows to integrate the operations of the transportation system.
The main aim of port ITS is to improve the inland access to seaports. The opportunities for ITS applications at ports are also in the provision of safe and efficient international border crossing. ITS components can be utilized to improve the flow of people, goods and information between the port and greater region. This engaged transportation, public safety and emergency services. The applications of port and terminal ITS should fit within regional ITS architecture therefore the standardization among various ITS applications at a regional, national or international level is necessary . The most useful types of port ITS and IT services are the online information exchange performed by telecommunication technology, vessels schedules, berth availability and technologies increasing safety and decreasing vessels turn around time.
The are the following elements of Port ITS architecture :
driver and vehicle identification and verification technologies,
non-intrusive inspection systems using non-intrusive devices,
identification tags systems to ensure the integrity of containers throughout the supply and distribution chain and improve visibility of shipments.
The application used in ports to consolidate information on ship arrivals, cargo status and roads conditions is VTS (Vessel Traffic Services) or VTMIS (Vessel Traffic Management and Information System), both integrated with AIS (Automatic Identification of Ships). The web-based system of VTS centres of Baltic ports VTMIS-NET (Vessel Traffic Management and Information System NETwork project) is the idea of the integrated VTMIS system for the Baltic Sea .
Introduction of VTS (Vessel Traffic Services) enhanced safety and efficiency of ship navigation in the dense areas. The further improvement is now possible owing to reduction of the human element contribution in hazards scenario development. There is a need for the development of different aids to navigation, decision support systems and transformation from pure manual to fully automated operation.
The proposed new elements of port ITS related to safety and efficiency of ferry manoeuvring operations are the advising systems for ship approach, entry into the harbour and berthing, for Ship Master, Harbourmaster and Port Chief Dispatcher. The systems integrated into the Decision Support (DS) system can be integrated with the VTS, if the harbour waters are under VTS surveillance.
3. Decision support system for ship approach, entry into the harbour and berthing The lay-out of the proposed advising system should be based on the precise hydrodynamic model of ship motions and online hydro-meteorological information.
The system is integrated of the following elements:
The general outline of the system is presented in figure 1.
Fig. 1. Decision support system
In risk analysis of port operations the hazards which represent the accident scenarios are scored against their frequency and consequences. This determines the overall risk of the hazards .
In the DS system the hazard identification module is the collection of sub-modules including ship technical, operational and sea area parameters, hydro-meteorological and ship motion models, reliability model of berth construction and hazard identification procedures. The risk is calculated on the basis of manoeuvring difficulty function, which represents the class of manoeuvring difficulty, in dependence on ship position along the approach channel and predicted ship response.
The risk mitigation sub-module of risk assessment module determines the risk reduction measures - the reactions to the identified hazards, before the risk level exceeds the ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Practicable) region. ALARP principle of risk management which is used in most ports in the process of derivation the risk control measures is based of cost–benefit analysis .
The system displays the parameters following from the identified hazards and risk computing. Information about the predicted time of manoeuvre is available for the Ship Master, Harbour Master and Port General Dispatcher office.
The risk mitigation measures applied in the proposed system are the recommendations related to ship course and speed during the navigation along the approach channel or tug boats employment for ship transit or berthing. With the assumed skills and experience of ferry masters the information of the required change of ship motion parameters is sufficient to correct the undertaken manoeuvring strategy, accounting for known random conditions along the approach channel.
In the proposed application Ship Master, Harbour Master and Port Chief Dispatcher are the elements of the whole control system. Ship response module collects the online data of ship performance and allows to identify hazards and predict the risk.
In the assessment of navigational risk for the ship entering the harbour the approach proposed by Vorobyov  is applied - the influence of wind and confused waters on vessel controllability estimation is considered as a stochastic process.
The model of ship berthing, is formulated on the basis of model tests results . The berthing and unberthing possibility can be estimated using the wind forces for the different wind speeds and directions.
Table 1. Main particulars of the car-passenger ferry model
Length over all [m]
Length between perpendiculars [m]
Fig. 2. Coordinate system .
Fig. 3. Sway force an yawing moment generated on the hull by different settings of the propellers and thrusters, wind force and moment for wind speed 12.5, 15.5 and 20 m/s .
The non-dimensional sway force (1) and yawing moment (2) generated on the hull by the propellers and thrusters are based on the length between perpendiculars, ship draft and water density . The wind force and moment were calculated using the data of a similar vessel . The results of the model tests together with wind force and moment are presented in figure 3.